What is Beyond The Freezing Point? The concept of this topic has occupied the minds of scientists and people interested in various scientific topics for many years now. In fact, the concept of the freezing point was first discovered over one hundred years ago. The question however is, what exactly is beyond the freezing point – or why anything gets to the point of being frozen.
Technically speaking, matter comes in various states, namely solid, liquid, or mixed states. The unique forms and stages it assumes or gains are determined by the properties of the particular matter. Liquid or frozen matter is still in a liquid state at the time of transformation. In cases where the matter has a mixed state, for instance, it becomes possible for some of its molecules to be frozen while some remain in a liquid state. The freezing point and the melting point are associated only with the properties of particular types of matter; for instance, they do not apply to all forms of superconductor.
The freezing point can be equated to the temperature in the atmosphere of absolute zero. It is where absolutely nothing remains frozen. On the other hand, the melting point can be thought of as a physical temperature where everything is in a liquid state. It is where objects melt. While it is true that the relationship between these two temperatures is complex, it can be stated that the relationship between the freezing point and the melting point is analogous to the relationship between pressure and density.
Beyond the point where absolutely nothing can remain liquid, there exist various thresholds by which such substances can transition into one from another. These transitions take place at different temperatures and under varying atmospheric conditions. At lower temperatures, many common substances such as water, ice and snow become dense enough to be pulled apart into small particles. When such particles acquire mass, they tend to spread out into the air as clouds.
When clouds possess a high concentration of cloud particles, it becomes denser and holds more moisture than the average cloud. Conversely, when the substance below the clouds becomes too saturated, clouds will contract until it has reached its freezing point. The transition between clouds can be equated to the absorption of energy by solidifying substances. When matter becomes dense enough, it can no longer absorb or emit radiation, and therefore becomes solid.
There are a few solidifying agents beyond the freezing point. Glass will become brittle when it becomes too dense, as it can no longer insulate heat. Salt can melt into a liquid is cooled below its critical point. On the other hand, plastic degrades when it is solidifying. Examples of such plastics include polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Styrofoam.
A solidifying agent can be a liquid or a semi-solid. A liquid deformulator acts like a thermosetting agent, making objects solidify even though they retain no solidification properties. An example of this would be liquid soap, which when applied to a surface actually solidifies into a small solid. A semi-solid is a material that has various melting points, which can be liquefied without changing its chemical or physical properties. Examples of such materials include aluminized oils, such as olive or sunflower oil; styrofoam cups; polystyrene (a common building ingredient) and polyurethane foam.
So how does substance deformation occur? Gravity is one way, as when an object descends into a colder region, it pulls on and expands the substance to a greater volume. Another way is through buoyancy. As the atmospheric pressure decreases, less air pressure is required to keep things afloat. A third way is related to heat transfer, which can be illustrated through the fact that warm bodies tend to draw hotter air from a cooler area than do cold bodies.